What can 3D printing with metal (wire) and laser do?

Laser wire deposition - a brief summary of the possibilities of printing of metal

3D printing can be used to create all kinds of complex workpieces. A wire (in our case made of metal, alternatively a powder) is often used, which is melted. The energy is provided by an energy source (e.g. laser, power source, heating or other radiation sources). The molten material bonds with the surface, cools and thus grows. Layer by layer, this process creates the desired structure, from flat coatings to additively manufactured components, such as rapid prototyping.

Advantages of using wire and laser to print metal 3D summarised

The use of wire is, among other things, clean, resource-saving and low-maintenance, as no metal residue remains. The laser works precisely and produces little burn-in or distortion. The additional wire material for 3D printing makes it possible to work additively and even carry out repairs on metal components.

Get an impression of the applications:

Our applications of laser and wire

coaxworks | Clean coating of a surface recorded by a camera
Applications

Printing in metal - examples from many

coaxworks | Video shows an example of additive manufacturing | build-up welding, welding with welding, filler material, additive manufacturing, material deposition with directed energy deposition (DED-LB/M)
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coaxworks | 3D printing of a metal wire of a round structure using a laser | precise laser metal deposition, flat metal coating, welding wire, welding filler material, additive manufacturing, material deposition, cladding overlay with directed energy deposition, rapid prototyping for metal, metallic workpieces

Definition of related processes from 3D printing with metallic wire and laser

laser metal deposition (LMD)

Similar term: DED-LB/M [ISO/ASTM 52900, ISO/ASTM TR 52912]

Laser metal deposition means a directed energy deposition (DED) with a laser beam (-LB) on metallic materials (/M). [ISO/ASTM 52900, ISO/ASTM TR 52912]

Laser wire deposition is a part of laser metal deposition. In our laser metal deposition process, the metal of the filler wire is deposited by welding. The filler wire, including a small part of the metal workpiece, is melted and firmly bonded.
3D printing

3D printing means the ‘fabrication of objects through the deposition of a material using a print head, nozzle or another printer technology’.

[ISO/ASTM 52900:2021, Additive manufacturing — General principles — Fundamentals and vocabulary]

We carry out 3D printing with metal. The filler wire is melted for this. From the production of prototypes to customised designs - 3D printing is flexible in its applications.
laser wire deposition

Similar terms: laser metal deposition with wire (LMDW) [DIN 17024], wire laser additive manufacturing (WLAM) [DIN 17024]

Laser wire deposition means directed energy deposition with the welding consumable wire and the main energy source laser beam. [translated after DIN 17024]

In laser wire deposition, the filler wire is melted with a laser. Our laser welding heads enable your laser processing machine to perform the laser wire deposition process.
filler wire

The filler wire means a ‘filler material in the form of a wire which can be a part of the welding circuit’.

[ISO/TR 25901-1:2016-03, Welding and allied processes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General terms]

Further related definitions for the topics "laser", "wire", "metal", "3D" and "printing" in relation to our products

Glossary

Further relevant cross-topic standards

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Further information

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General information about our options for 3D printing metal (wire) using lasers

Related processes

laser wire build-up welding, welding with welding wire, overlay welding with filler material, 3D metal printing of wire, additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, material deposition with directed energy deposition (DED-LB/M), cladding, layer-by-layer and similar processes

Filler material used

wire (made of various metals - mostly solid wire)

Further information can be found under our applications:

3D metal printing
Laser wire deposition

Our products - suitable equipment for printing metal

Products

Incomplete list of relevant standards (e.g. welding and additive manufacturing)

Terminology

Technical terms are often very specific in their meaning. Communicating with them is therefore effective and necessary for some topics. However, it can also lead to misunderstandings if the communicators use different definitions based on their experience. This problem becomes even more apparent with translations, as topics such as welding are relatively old and a lot of development took place before international standardisation was established. Finally, some technical terms are also defined differently in different subject areas.

Standards that standardise terminology and at the same time translate it internationally (for example in the form of ISO or IEC) are therefore important as a common basis for communication.

Examples of terminology standards in this area are:

  • ISO 25901, EN 1792 & ISO 17659: welding
  • ISO 857-2: soldering
  • ISO 52900: additive manufacturing
  • ISO 11145: radiation
  • ISO 2806: industrial automation systems

Materials (Metal)

Different additive manufacturing technologies sometimes use very different materials. For our processes, the materials used should be weldable. We also use welding consumable, which makes it possible to apply additional material.

Examples of standards that determine the properties of the material:

  • ISO 581: weldability
  • ISO 17652: shop primers
  • ISO 15608: grouping system
  • ISO 544: technical delivery conditions for filler materials
  • ISO 22281 & ISO 15610: quality welding consumables
  • ISO 1071 & 10809-2: cast iron
  • ISO 18273: aluminium
  • ISO 18274: nickel
  • ISO 19288: magnesium
  • ISO 24373: copper
  • ISO 24034: titanium

Gases

Of course, the properties of the gases used for welding are also categorised. You can use ISO 14175 to define the composition and purity requirements for your process.

Safety and environment

Several standards also provide guidance on the influence of the process on the environment, including personnel. These also include suggestions on how to approach ensuring health and safety at work.

Examples of standards for safety and the environment:

  • EN 14717: environmental check list
  • ISO 14955-4: energy efficiency
  • ISO 15011-4: fume data sheet
  • ISO 207, 208, 169 & 175: personal eye-protection for different types of radiation
  • IEC 60825, EN 12254, ISO 11553 & ISO 25980: screens for different types of radiation
  • ISO 52931: additive manufacturing
  • ISO 11252: documentation

Operators

Welding is a responsible task, as errors are often hidden but can sometimes have major consequences. The same applies to additive manufacturing, which is why tests are usually required internationally in order to recognise and assess risks.

Examples of standards relating to the training of personnel:

  • ISO 9606: test of welders
  • ISO 14732: operators of welding systems
  • ISO 52926: operators of additive manufacturing systems
  • ISO 52937: designers of additive manufacturing
  • ISO 14731: welding coordinators
  • ISO 52935: additive manufacturing coordinators

Inspection of workpieces

Inspecting workpieces is often a challenge, as it is difficult to find hidden defects without completely dismantling the workpiece. This is why standards also deal with this topic.

Examples of standards with information on the inspection of manufactured workpieces:

  • ISO 6520-1: classification of imperfections
  • ISO 15792: test methods
  • ISO 15626, 52905 & 52906: non-destructive testing
  • ISO 52901: requirements for purchased additive manufactured parts